Chemistry – Famous Scientist and A Short Biography
Albert Einstein is known today as one of the most advanced physicist of the 20th century. He was born in Germany, March 14, 1879; died April 18, 1955, in Princeton, NJ. As a child Einstein was interested in his dad’s gift of a compass, which led him to enlightened thinking which eventually brought him to enjoy mathematics. By the age of 12 he was already studying calculus at a more advanced level than could be taught by teachers at his school. One of his greatest achievements include the formula “e=mc²”. This formula explains that mass and energy can be interchangeable by dividing energy by the speed of light squared you get the mass. Einstein also discovered that the speed of light is consistent. Einstein was rumored to not believe in god, and never states what religion he practiced. Hypothetically, according to Einstein, if you could travel faster than the speed of light, you could hypothetically go back in time; this is purely mathematical reasoning. He lived a very modest, fulfilling life and would probably work everyday, if he was still alive today.
J. J. Thompson
Joseph John Thomson of 1856-1940 was the first to successfully measure the weight of the gas inside the cathode tube. Because of his experiments he was able to state a couple postulates. His first experiments taught him that negative charges are impossible to manipulate with a magnet. Secondly he learned that electric fields couldn’t change the path of the cathode ray. Finally he learned of the charge-mass ratio, which led to his winning of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906. He is credited with the discovery of electrons and of the isotopes.
Marie Curie was born November 7, 1867. She grew up in Poland but later moved to France to study radioactive elements. Her parents both being teachers in Poland taught her to be very studious and her discoveries reflect that. After meeting Pierre Curie and working together, they eventually fell in love and got married. They eventually switched their studies to work together in learning about radioactive elements. Such as radium and Plutonium, which Marie Curie discovered and put on the periodic table with the help of Pierre. Their breakthroughs led them to winning the Nobel Prize for physics. Which gave Marie the funding needed to receive her doctorate, an unheard of thing for women in the time. Radon, developed from radium, was used my Curie during WW1 to help treat damaged tissue, and is now used today for cancer treatments. In addition to the radon tubes, Marie set up 20 mobile x-ray stations to aid doctors in treating bullet wounds. Eventually Curie’s excessive exposure to radiation led to leukemia (blood cancer), and her death in 1934.
Niels Henrik David Bohr was born Oct 7, 1885. He was born in Copenhagen, Denmark where he studied atomic structure and quantum mechanics. One of the points of his Bohr’s model concluded that electrons travel in circles around the atom’s nucleus and the electron can switch to a different energy circle that would release energy. He was a good friend of Albert Einstein’s and worked beside him. In 1975 he won the Nobel peace prize for his ‘studies of the structure of atoms, and the radiation emanating from them’. He died Nov 18, 1962 of a stroke and was buried in his hometown of Copenhagen, Denmark.
James Chadwick of Cambridge England was born October 20th, 1891; and died July 24th, 1974. He studies physics and frequently worked with Ernest Rutherford. In 1932 he discovered the neutron, a neutrally charged subatomic particle of an atom. This discovery also helped lead to the creation of the atomic bomb. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1935 for his discovery of the neutron.
Ernest Rutherford lived between 1871-1937. His advanced education helped him win a scholarship for a prestige school, which eventually led him to winning a Nobel Prize for his studies of radioactive materials. By 1911 he joined a small group of scientists to investigate the contents of atoms. By surprise the alpha rays, for the most part, went right through the element, thus showing that most of an atom is just empty space. He also said that most of the mass, comes from a tiny dense region in the middle of an element, called a nucleus. He was surprised to learn how dense the nucleus was due to the empty space that surrounds the nucleus. The opposite force between the alpha particles cause the deflections when nearing to positive nucleus. Rutherford’s well-known plum pudding model was proved wrong by himself who led to his conclusion of the nucleus and that protons, in the nucleus have a positive charge.
Entry filed under: Chemistry, Personal Notes, Study Guides. Tags: Albert Einstein, Bohr, Chadwick, einstien, Ernest Rutherford, J. J. Thompson, James Chadwick, Marie Curie, Niels Bohr, Rutherford, thompson.